China Charter 2008

L’elezione di Aung San Suu Kyi al Parlamento birmano ed il quasi contemporaneo viaggio del Presidente del Consiglio Mario Monti in Cina hanno riportato al centro del dibattito italiano il tema dei diritti fondamentali e della democrazia in Asia.

Per contribuire al dibattito, secondo la prospettiva del nostro blog, è forse utile ripubblicare e far circolare la “Carta 2008”, un manifesto di resistenza ed opposizione politica, sottoscritto da intellettuali ed esponenti della cultura cinese – alcuni dei quali in carcere anche per questa ragione -, che invoca il rispetto dei diritti umani e l’adozione dei principi del costituzionalismo liberal-democratico.

Il merito di avere riproposto alla nostra attenzione questo manifesto è di Peter Häberle, che ne ha discusso in una recente conferenza tenuta presso l’Università di Roma La Sapienza, valorizzandone, soprattutto, il valore politico e gli scenari che prefigura.

Di seguito il testo:

“Charter 08”

I. Preamble
This year marks 100 years since China’s [first] Constitution,1 the 60th anniversary of the promulgation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 30th anniversary of the birth of the Democracy Wall, and the 10th year since the Chinese government signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Having experienced a prolonged period of human rights disasters and challenging and tortuous struggles, the awakening Chinese citizens are becoming increasingly aware that freedom, equality, and human rights are universal values shared by all humankind, and that democracy, republicanism, and constitutional government make up the basic institutional framework of modern politics. A “modernization” bereft of these universal values and this basic political framework is a disastrous process that deprives people of their rights, rots away their humanity, and destroys their dignity. Where is China headed in the 21st century? Will it continue with this “modernization” under authoritarian rule, or will it endorse universal values, join the mainstream civilization, and build a democratic form of government? This is an unavoidable decision.

The tremendous historic changes of the mid-19th century exposed the decay of the traditional Chinese autocratic system and set the stage for the greatest transformation China had seen in several thousand years. The Self-Strengthening Movement [1861–1895] sought improvements in China’s technical capability by acquiring manufacturing techniques, scientific knowledge, and military technologies from the West; China’s defeat in the first Sino-Japanese War [1894–1895] once again exposed the obsolescence of its system; the Hundred Days’ Reform [1898] touched upon the area of institutional innovation, but ended in failure due to cruel suppression by the die-hard faction [at the Qing court]. The Xinhai Revolution [1911], on the surface, buried the imperial system that had lasted for more than 2,000 years and established Asia’s first republic. But, because of the particular historical circumstances of internal and external troubles, the republican system of government was short lived, and autocracy made a comeback.

The failure of technical imitation and institutional renewal prompted deep reflection among our countrymen on the root cause of China’s cultural sickness, and the ensuing May Fourth [1919] and New Culture Movements [1915–1921] under the banner of “science and democracy.” But the course of China’s political democratization was forcibly cut short due to frequent civil wars and foreign invasion. The process of a constitutional government began again after China’s victory in the War of Resistance against Japan [1937–1945], but the outcome of the civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists plunged China into the abyss of modern-day totalitarianism.

The “New China” established in 1949 is a “people’s republic” in name, but in reality it is a “party domain.” The ruling party monopolizes all the political, economic, and social resources. It has created a string of human rights disasters, such as the Anti-Rightist Campaign, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, June Fourth, and the suppression of unofficial religious activities and the rights defense movement, causing tens of millions of deaths, and exacting a disastrous price from both the people and the country.

The “Reform and Opening Up” of the late 20th century extricated China from the pervasive poverty and absolute totalitarianism of the Mao Zedong era, and substantially increased private wealth and the standard of living of the common people. Individual economic freedom and social privileges were partially restored, a civil society began to grow, and calls for human rights and political freedom among the people increased by the day. Those in power, while implementing economic reforms aimed at marketization and privatization, also began to shift from a position of rejecting human rights to one of gradually recognizing them. In 1997 and 1998, the Chinese government signed two important international human rights treaties.2 In 2004, the National People’s Congress amended the Constitution to add that “[the State] respects and guarantees human rights.” And this year, the government has promised to formulate and implement a “National Human Rights Action Plan.” But so far, this political progress has largely remained on paper: there are laws, but there is no rule of law; there is a constitution, but no constitutional government; this is still the political reality that is obvious to all. The ruling elite continues to insist on its authoritarian grip on power, rejecting political reform.

This has caused official corruption, difficulty in establishing rule of law, the absence of of human rights, moral bankruptcy, social polarization, abnormal economic development, destruction of both the natural and cultural environment, no institutionalized protection of citizens’ rights to freedom, property, and the pursuit of happiness, the constant accumulation of all kinds of social conflicts, and the continuous surge of resentment. In particular, the intensification of antagonism between the government and the people, and the dramatic increase in mass incidents, indicate a catastrophic loss of control in the making, suggesting that the backwardness of the current system has reached a point where change must occur.

II. Our Fundamental Concepts
At this historical juncture that will decide the future destiny of China, it is necessary to reflect on the modernization process of the past hundred and some years and reaffirm the following concepts:

Freedom: Freedom is at the core of universal values. The rights of speech, publication, belief, assembly, association, movement, to strike, and to march and demonstrate are all the concrete expressions of freedom. Where freedom does not flourish, there is no modern civilization to speak of.

Human Rights: Human rights are not bestowed by a state; they are inherent rights enjoyed by every person. Guaranteeing human rights is both the most important objective of a government and the foundation of the legitimacy of its public authority; it is also the intrinsic requirement of the policy of “putting people first.” China’s successive political disasters have all been closely related to the disregard for human rights by the ruling establishment. People are the mainstay of a nation; a nation serves its people; government exists for the people.

Equality: The integrity, dignity, and freedom of every individual, regardless of social status, occupation, gender, economic circumstances, ethnicity, skin color, religion, or political belief, are equal. The principles of equality before the law for each and every person and equality in social, economic, cultural, and political rights of all citizens must be implemented.

Republicanism: Republicanism is “joint governing by all, peaceful coexistence,” that is, the separation of powers for checks and balances and the balance of interests; that is, a community comprising many diverse interests, different social groups, and a plurality of cultures and faiths, seeking to peacefully handle public affairs on the basis of equal participation, fair competition, and joint discussion.

Democracy: The most fundamental meaning is that sovereignty resides in the people and the government elected by the people. Democracy has the following basic characteristics:(1) The legitimacy of political power comes from the people; the source of political power is the people. (2) Political control is exercised through choices made by the people. (3) Citizens enjoy the genuine right to vote; officials in key positions at all levels of government must be the product of elections at regular intervals. (4) Respect the decisions of the majority while protecting the basic human rights of the minority. In a word, democracy is the modern public instrument for creating a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

Constitutionalism: Constitutionalism is the principle of guaranteeing basic freedoms and rights of citizens as defined by the constitution through legal provisions and the rule of law, restricting and defining the boundaries of government power and conduct, and providing appropriate institutional capability to carry this out. In China, the era of imperial power is long gone, never to return; in the world at large, the authoritarian system is on the wane; citizens ought to become the true masters of their states. The fundamental way out for China lies only in dispelling the subservient notion of reliance on “enlightened rulers” and “upright officials,” promoting public consciousness of rights as fundamental and participation as a duty, and putting into practice freedom, engaging in democracy, and respecting the law.

III. Our Basic Positions
Thus, in the spirit of responsible and constructive citizens, we put forth the following specific positions regarding various aspects of state administration, citizens’ rights and interests, and social development:

1. Constitutional Amendment: Based on the aforementioned values and concepts, amend the Constitution, deleting clauses in the current Constitution that are not in conformity with the principle that sovereignty resides in the people, so that the Constitution can truly become a document that guarantees human rights and allows for the exercise of public power, and become the enforceable supreme law that no individual, group, or party can violate, establishing the foundation of the legal authority for democratizing China.

2. Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances: Construct a modern government that separates powers and maintains checks and balances among them, that guarantees the separation of legislative, judicial, and executive powers. Establish the principle of statutory administration and responsible government to prevent excessive expansion of executive power; government should be responsible to taxpayers; establish the system of separation of powers and checks and balances between the central and local governments; the central power must be clearly defined and mandated by the Constitution, and the localities must exercise full autonomy.

3. Legislative Democracy: Legislative bodies at all levels should be created through direct elections; maintain the principle of fairness and justice in making law; and implement legislative democracy.

4. Judicial Independence: The judiciary should transcend partisanship, be free from any interference, exercise judicial independence, and guarantee judicial fairness; it should establish a constitutional court and a system to investigate violations of the Constitution, and uphold the authority of the Constitution. Abolish as soon as possible the Party’s Committees of Political and Legislative Affairs at all levels that seriously endanger the country’s rule of law. Prevent private use of public instruments.

5. Public Use of Public Instruments: Bring the armed forces under state control. Military personnel should render loyalty to the Constitution and to the country. Political party organizations should withdraw from the armed forces; raise the professional standards of the armed forces. All public employees including the police should maintain political neutrality. Abolish discrimination in hiring of public employees based on party affiliation; there should be equality in hiring regardless of party affiliation.

6. Human Rights Guarantees: Guarantee human rights in earnest; protect human dignity. Set up a Commission on Human Rights, responsible to the highest organ of popular will, to prevent government abuse of public authority and violations of human rights, and, especially, to guarantee the personal freedom of citizens. No one shall suffer illegal arrest, detention, subpoena, interrogation, or punishment. Abolish the Reeducation-Through-Labor system.

7. Election of Public Officials: Fully implement the system of democratic elections to realize equal voting rights based on “one person, one vote.” Systematically and gradually implement direct elections of administrative heads at all levels. Regular elections based on free competition and citizen participation in elections for legal public office are inalienable basic human rights.

8. Urban-Rural Equality: Abolish the current urban-rural two-tier household registration system to realize the constitutional right of equality before the law for all citizens and guarantee the citizens’ right to move freely.

9. Freedom of Association: Guarantee citizens’ right to freedom of association. Change the current system of registration upon approval for community groups to a system of record-keeping. Lift the ban on political parties. Regulate party activities according to the Constitution and law; abolish the privilege of one-party monopoly on power; establish the principles of freedom of activities of political parties and fair competition for political parties; normalize and legally regulate party politics.

10. Freedom of Assembly: Freedoms to peacefully assemble, march, demonstrate, and express [opinions] are citizens’ fundamental freedoms stipulated by the Constitution; they should not be subject to illegal interference and unconstitutional restrictions by the ruling party and the government.

11. Freedom of Expression: Realize the freedom of speech, freedom to publish, and academic freedom; guarantee the citizens’ right to know and right to supervise [public institutions]. Enact a “News Law” and a “Publishing Law,” lift the ban on reporting, repeal the “crime of inciting subversion of state power” clause in the current Criminal Law, and put an end to punishing speech as a crime.

12. Freedom of Religion: Guarantee freedom of religion and freedom of belief, and implement separation of religion and state so that activities involving religion and faith are not subjected to government interference. Examine and repeal administrative statutes, administrative rules, and local statutes that restrict or deprive citizens of religious freedom; ban management of religious activities by administrative legislation. Abolish the system that requires that religious groups (and including places of worship) obtain prior approval of their legal status in order to register, and replace it with a system of record-keeping that requires no scrutiny.

13. Civic Education: Abolish political education and political examinations that are heavy on ideology and serve the one-party rule. Popularize civic education based on universal values and civil rights, establish civic consciousness, and advocate civic virtues that serve society.

14. Property Protection: Establish and protect private property rights, and implement a system based on a free and open market economy; guarantee entrepreneurial freedom, and eliminate administrative monopolies; set up a Committee for the Management of State-Owned Property, responsible to the highest organ of popular will; launch reform of property rights in a legal and orderly fashion, and clarify the ownership of property rights and those responsible; launch a new land movement, advance land privatization, and guarantee in earnest the land property rights of citizens, particularly the farmers.

15. Fiscal Reform: Democratize public finances and guarantee taxpayers’ rights. Set up the structure and operational mechanism of a public finance system with clearly defined authority and responsibilities, and establish a rational and effective system of decentralized financial authority among various levels of government; carry out a major reform of the tax system, so as to reduce tax rates, simplify the tax system, and equalize the tax burden. Administrative departments may not increase taxes or create new taxes at will without sanction by society obtained through a public elective process and resolution by organs of popular will. Pass property rights reform to diversify and introduce competition mechanisms into the market; lower the threshold for entry into the financial field and create conditions for the development of privately-owned financial enterprises, and fully energize the financial system.

16. Social Security: Establish a social security system that covers all citizens and provides them with basic security in education, medical care, care for the elderly, and employment.

17. Environmental Protection: Protect the ecological environment, promote sustainable development, and take responsibility for future generations and all humanity; clarify and impose the appropriate responsibilities that state and government officials at all levels must take to this end; promote participation and oversight by civil society groups in environmental protection.

18. Federal Republic: Take part in maintaining regional peace and development with an attitude of equality and fairness, and create an image of a responsible great power. Protect the free systems of Hong Kong and Macau .On the premise of freedom and democracy, seek a reconciliation plan for the mainland and Taiwan through equal negotiations and cooperative interaction. Wisely explore possible paths and institutional blueprints for the common prosperity of all ethnic groups, and establish the Federal Republic of China under the framework of a democractic and constitutional government.

19. Transitional Justice: Restore the reputation of and give state compensation to individuals, as well as their families, who suffered political persecution during past political movements; release all political prisoners and prisoners of conscience; release all people convicted for their beliefs; establish a Commission for Truth Investigation to find the truth of historical events, determine responsibility, and uphold justice; seek social reconciliation on this foundation.

IV. Conclusion
China, as a great nation of the world, one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and a member of the Human Rights Council, ought to make its own contribution to peace for humankind and progress in human rights.

Regrettably, however, of all the great nations of the world today, China alone still clings to an authoritarian way of life and has, as a result, created an unbroken nchain of human rights disasters and social crises, held back the development of the Chinese people, and hindered the progress of human civilization. This situation must change! We cannot put off political democratization reforms any longer. Therefore, in the civic spirit of daring to take action, we are issuing Charter 08. We hope that all Chinese citizens who share this sense of crisis, responsibility, and mission, whether officials or common people and regardless of social background, will put aside our differences to seek common ground and come to take an active part in this citizens’ movement, to promote the great transformation of Chinese society together, so that we can soon establish a free, democratic, and constitutional nation, fulfilling the aspirations and dreams that our countrymen have been pursuing tirelessly for more than a hundred years.


Yu Haocheng于浩成 (Beijing, Legal Scholar)
Zhang Sizhi 张思之 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Mao Yushi茅于轼 (Beijing, Economist)
Du Guang杜 光 (Beijing, Political Scientist)
Li Pu李 普 (Beijing, Senior Journalist)
Sha Yexin 沙叶新 (Shanghai, Playwright)
Liu Shahe流沙河 (Sichuan, Poet)
Wu Maohua 吴茂华 (Sichuan, Writer)
Zhang Xianyang 张显扬 (Beijing, Ideologist)
Sun Wenguang 孙文广 (Shandong, Professor)
Bao Tong 鲍 彤 (Beijing, Citizen)
Ding Ziling 丁子霖 (Beijing, Professor)
Zhang Xianling 张先玲 (Beijing, Engineer)
Xu Jue 徐 珏 (Beijing, Researcher)
Jiang Peikun 蒋培坤 (Beijing, Professor)
Liu Xiaobo 刘晓波 (Beijing, Writer)
Zhang Zuhua 张祖桦 (Beijing, Constitutional Scholar)
Gao Yu 高 瑜 (Beijing, Journalist)
Dai Qing戴 晴 (Beijing, Writer)
Jiang Qisheng 江棋生 (Beijing, Scholar)
Ai Xiaoming 艾晓明 (Guangdong, Professor)
Liu Junning 刘军宁 (Beijing, Political Scientist)
Zhang Xukun 张旭昆 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Xu Youyu 徐友渔 (Beijing, Philosopher)
He Weifang 贺卫方 (Beijing, Legal Scholar)
Mo Shaoping 莫少平 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Chen Ziming 陈子明 (Beijing, Scholar)
Zhang Boshu 张博树 (Beijing, Political Scientist)
Cui Weiping 崔卫平 (Beijing, Scholar)
He Guanghu 何光沪 (Theologian)
Hao Jian 郝 建 (Beijing, Scholar)
Shen Minhua 沈敏骅 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Li Datong 李大同 (Beijing, Journalist)
Li Xianting 栗宪庭 (Beijing, Art Commentator)
Zhang Ming 张 鸣 (Beijing, Professor)
Yu Jie 余 杰 (Beijing, Writer)
Yu Shicun余世存 (Beijing, Writer)
Qin Geng 秦 耕 (Hainan, Writer)
Zhou Duo 周 舵 (Beijing, Scholar)
Pu Zhiqiang 浦志强 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Zhao Dagong 赵达功 (Shenzhen, Writer)
Yao Lifa 姚立法 (Hubei, Election Expert)
Feng Zhenghu 冯正虎 (Shanghai, Scholar)
Zhou Qing 周 勍 (Beijing, Writer)
Yang Hengjun 杨恒均 (Guangzhou [Guangdong], Writer)
Teng Biao 滕 彪 (Beijing, Doctor of Law)
Jiang Danwen 蒋亶文 (Shanghai, Writer)
Woeser [Öser] 唯 色 (Tibet, Writer)
Ma Bo 马 波 (Beijing, Writer)
Cha Jianying 查建英 (Beijing, Writer)
Hu Fayun 胡发云 (Hubei, Writer)
Jiao Guobiao 焦国标 (Beijing, Scholar)
Li Gongming 李公明 (Guangdong, Professor)
Zhao Hui 赵 晖 (Beijing, Commentator)
Li Boguang 李柏光 (Beijing, Doctor of Law)
Fu Guoyong 傅国涌 (Zhejiang, Writer)
Ma Shaofang 马少方 (Guangdong, Businessman)
Zhang Hong 张 闳 (Shanghai, Professor)
Xia Yeliang 夏业良 (Beijing, Economist)
Ran Yunfei 冉云飞 (Sichuan, Scholar)
Liao Yiwu 廖亦武 (Sichuan, Writer)
Wang Yi 王 怡 (Sichuan, Scholar)
Wang Xiaoyu王晓渔 (Shanghai, Scholar)
Su Yuanzhen 苏元真 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Jiang Jianzhong 强剑衷 (Nanjing [Jiangsu], Senior Journalist)
Ouyang Xiaorong 欧阳小戎 (Yunnan, Poet)
Liu Di 刘 荻 (Beijing, Freelance Worker)
Zan Aizong 昝爱宗 (Zhejiang, Journalist)
Zhou Hongling 周鸿陵 (Beijing, Social Activist)
Feng Gang冯 刚 (Zhejiang Professor)
Chen Lin 陈 林 (Guangzhou [Guangdong], Scholar)
Yin Xian 尹 贤 (Gansu, Poet)
Zhou Ming 周 明 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Ling Cangzhou 凌沧洲 (Beijing, Journalist)
Tie Liu 铁 流 (Beijing, Writer)
Chen Fengxiao 陈奉孝 (Shandong, Former Rightist Student from Beijing University)
Yao Bo 姚 博 (Beijing, Commentator)
Zhang Jinjun 张津郡 (Guangdong, Manager)
Li Jianhong 李剑虹 (Shanghai, Writer)
Zhang Shanguang 张善光 (Hunan, Human Rights Defender)
Li Deming 李德铭 (Hunan, Journalist)
Liu Jianan 刘建安 (Hunan, Teacher)
Wang Xiaoshan 王小山 (Beijing, Media Worker)
Fan Yafeng 范亚峰 (Beijing, Doctor of Law)
Zhou Mingchu 周明初 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Liang Xiaoyan 梁晓燕 (Beijing, Environmental Volunteer)
Xu Xiao 徐 晓 (Beijing, Writer)
Chen Xi 陈 西 (Guizhou, Human Rights Defender)
Zhao Cheng 赵 诚 (Shanxi, Scholar)
Li Yuanlong 李元龙 (Guizhou, Freelance Writer)
Shen Youlian 申有连 (Guizhou, Human Rights Defender)
Jiang Suimin 蒋绥敏 (Beijing, Engineer)
Lu Zhongming 陆中明 (Shaanxi, Scholar)
Meng Huang 孟 煌 (Beijing, Artist)
Lin Fuwu 林福武 (Fujian, Human Rights Defender)
Liao Shuangyuan 廖双元 (Guizhou, Human Rights Defender)
Lu Xuesong 卢雪松 (Jilin, Teacher)
Guo Yushan 郭玉闪 (Beijing, Scholar)
Chen Huanhui 陈焕辉 (Fujian, Human Rights Defender)
Zhu Jiuhu朱久虎 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Jin Guanghong 金光鸿 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Gao Chaoqun 高超群 (Beijing, Editor)
Bo Feng 柏 风 (Jilin, Poet)
Zheng Xuguang 郑旭光 (Beijing, Scholar)
Zeng Jinyan 曾金燕 (Beijing, Rights Activist)
Wu Yuqin 吴玉琴 (Guizhou, Human Rights Defender)
Du Yilong 杜义龙 (Shaanxi, Writer)
Li Hai 李 海 (Beijing, Human Rights Defender)
Zhang Hui 张 辉 (Shanxi, Democracy Activist)
Jiang Shan 江 山 (Guangdong, Property Rights Activist)
Xu Guoqing 徐国庆 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Wu Yu 吴 郁 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Zhang Mingzhen 张明珍 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Zeng Ning 曾 宁 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Quan Linzhi 全林志 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Ye Hang 叶 航 (Zhejiang, Professor)
Ma Yunlong 马云龙 (Henan, Senior Journalist)
Zhu Jianguo 朱健国 (Guangdong, Freelance Writer)
Li Tie 李 铁 (Guangdong, Social Activist)
Mo Jiangang 莫建刚 (Guizhou, Freelance Writer)
Zhang Yaojie 张耀杰 (Beijing, Scholar)
Wu Baojian 吴报建 (Zhejiang, Lawyer)
Yang Guang 杨 光 (Guangxi, Scholar)
Yu Meisun 俞梅荪 (Beijing, Legal Professional)
Xing Jian 行 健 (Beijing, Legal Professional)
Wang Guangze 王光泽 (Beijing, Social Activist)
Chen Shaohua 陈绍华 (Guangdong, Designer)
Liu Yiming 刘逸明 (Hubei, Freelance Writer)
Wu Zuolai 吴祚来 (Beijing, Researcher)
Gao Zhen 高 兟 (Shandong, Artist)
Gao Qiang 高 强 (Shandong, Artist)
Tang Jingling 唐荆陵 (Guangdong, Lawyer)
Li Xiaolong 黎小龙 (Guangxi, Rights Activist)
Jing Chu 荆 楚 (Guangxi, Freelance Writer)
Li Biao 李 彪 (Anhui, Businessman)
Guo Yan 郭 艳 (Guangdong, Lawyer)
Yang Shiyuan杨世元 (Zhejiang, Retiree)
Yang Kuanxing 杨宽兴 (Shandong, Writer)
Li Jinfang 李金芳 (Hebei, Democracy Activist)
Wang Yuwen 王玉文 (Guizhou, Poet)
Yang Zhongyi杨中义 (Anhui, Worker)
Wu Xinyuan 武辛源 (Hebei, Peasant)
Du Heping 杜和平 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Feng Ling 冯 玲 (Hubei, Volunteer for Constitutional Politics)
Zhang Xianzhong 张先忠 (Hubei, Entrepreneur)
Cai Jingzhong 蔡敬忠 (Guangdong, Peasant)
Wang Dianbin 王典斌 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Cai Jincai 蔡金才 (Guangdong, Peasant)
Gao Aiguo 高爱国 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Chen Zhanyao 陈湛尧 (Guangdong, Peasant)
He Wenkai 何文凯 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Wu Dangying 吴党英 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Zeng Qingbin 曾庆彬 (Guangdong, Worker)
Mao Haixiu 毛海秀 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Zhuang Daohe 庄道鹤 (Hangzhou, Lawyer)
Li Xiongbing 黎雄兵 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Li Renke 李任科 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Zuo Li 左 力 (Hebei, Lawyer)
Dong Dezhu 董德筑 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Tao Yuping 陶玉平 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Wang Junxiu王俊秀 (Beijing, IT Professional)
Huang Xiaomin 黄晓敏 (Sichuan, Rights Activist)
Zheng Enchong 郑恩宠 (Shanghai, Legal Adviser)
Zhang Junling 张君令 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Yang Hai 杨 海 (Shaanxi, Scholar)
Ai Fulai 艾福荣 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Yang Huaren 杨华仁 (Hubei, Legal Professional)
Wei Qin 魏 勤 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Su Zuxiang 苏祖祥 (Hubei, Teacher)
Shen Yulian 沈玉莲 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Guan Hongshan 关洪山 (Hubei, Human Rights Defender)
Song Xianke 宋先科 (Guangdong, Businessman)
Wang Guoqiang 汪国强 (Hubei, Human Rights Defender)
Chen Enjuan 陈恩娟 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Li Yong 李 勇 (Beijing, Media Worker)
Chang Xiongfa 常雄发 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Wang Jinglong 王京龙 (Beijing, Management Scholar)
Xu Zhengqing 许正清 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Gao Junsheng 高军生 (Shaanxi, Editor)
Zheng Beibei 郑蓓蓓 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Wang Dinghua 王定华 (Hubei, Lawyer)
Tan Lanying 谈兰英 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Fan Yanqiong 范燕琼 (Fujian, Human Rights Defender)
Lin Hui 林 辉 (Zhejiang, Poet)
Wu Huaying 吴华英 (Fujian, Human Rights Defender)
Xue Zhenbiao 薛振标 (Zhejiang, Democracy Activist)
Dong Guojing 董国菁 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Chen Yufeng 陈玉峰 (Hubei, Legal Professional)
Duan Ruofei 段若飞 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Wang Zhongling 王中陵 (Shaanxi, Teacher)
Dong Chunhua 董春华 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Chen Xiuqin 陈修琴 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Liu Zhengyou 刘正有 (Sichuan, Human Rights Defender)
Ma Xiao 马 萧 (Beijing, Writer)
Wan Yanhai 万延海 (Beijing, Public Health Expert)
Shen Peilan 沈佩兰 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Ye Xiaogang 叶孝刚 (Zhejiang, Retired University Faculty Member)
Zhang Jingsong张劲松 (Anhui, Worker)
Zhang Jinfa 章锦发 (Zhejiang, Retiree)
Wang Liqing 王丽卿 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Zhao Changqing 赵常青 (Shaanxi, Writer)
Jin Yuehua 金月花 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Yu Zhangfa 余樟法 (Guangxi, Writer)
Chen Qiyong 陈启勇 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Liu Xianbin 刘贤斌 (Sichuan, Democracy Activist)
Ouyang Yi欧阳懿 (Sichuan, Human Rights Defender)
Deng Huanwu 邓焕武 (Chongqing, Businessman)
He Weihua 贺伟华 (Hunan, Democracy Activist)
Li Dongzhuo 李东卓 (Hunan, IT Professional)
Tian Yongde 田永德 (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Human Rights Defender)
Zhi Xiaomin 智效民 (Shanxi, Scholar)
Li Changyu李昌玉 (Shandong, Teacher)
Guo Weidong 郭卫东 (Zhejiang, Office Worker)
Chen Wei 陈 卫 (Sichuan, Democracy Activist)
Wang Jinan王金安 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Cai Wenjun蔡文君 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Hou Shuming 侯述明 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Liu Hannan 刘汉南 (Hubei, Human Rights Defender)
Shi Ruoping 史若平 (Shandong, Professor)
Zhang Renxiang 张忍祥 (Hubei, Human Rights Defender)
Ye Du野 渡 (Guangdong, Editor)
Xia Gang 夏 刚 (Hubei, Human Rights Defender)
Zhao Guoliang 赵国良 (Hunan, Democracy Activist)
Li Zhiying 李智英 (Beijing, Scholar)
Zhang Zhongfa 张重发 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Chen Yongmiao 陈永苗 (Beijing, Scholar)
Jiang Ying 江 婴 (Tianjin, Poet)
Tian Zuxiang 田祖湘 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Huang Zhijia 黄志佳 (Hubei, Civil Servant)
Guan Yebo 关业波 (Hubei, Civil Servant)
Wang Wangming王望明 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Gao Xinrui 高新瑞 (Hubei, Entrepreneur)
Song Shuiquan 宋水泉 (Hubei, Legal Professional)
Zhao Jingzhou 赵景洲 (Helongjiang, Human Rights Defender)
Wen Kejian 温克坚 (Zhejiang, Scholar)
Wei Wenying 魏文英 (Yunnan, Teacher)
Chen Huijuan 陈惠娟 (Helongjiang, Human Rights Defender)
Chen Yanxiong 陈炎雄 (Hubei, Teacher)
Duan Chunfang 段春芳 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Liu Zhengshan 刘正善 (Yunnan, Engineer)
Guan Min 关 敏 (Hubei, University Teacher)
Dai Yuanlong 戴元龙 (Fujian, Business Owner)
Yu Yiwei 余以为 (Guangdong, Freelance Writer)
Han Zurong 韩祖荣 (Fujian, Business Owner)
Wang Dingliang 汪定亮 (Hubei, Lawyer)
Chen Qinglin 陈青林 (Beijing, Human Rights Defender)
Qian Shishun 钱世顺 (Guangdong, Business Owner)
Zeng Boyan 曾伯炎 (Sichuan, Writer)
Ma Yalian 马亚莲 (Shanghai, Human Rights Defender)
Che Hongnian 车宏年 (Shandong, Freelance Writer)
Qin Zhigang 秦志刚 (Shandong, Electronic Engineer)
Song Xiangfeng 宋翔峰 (Hubei, Teacher)
Deng Fuhua 邓复华 (Hubei, Writer)
Xu Kang 徐 康 (Hubei, Civil Servant)
Li Jianqiang 李建强 (Shandong, Lawyer)
Li Renbing 李仁兵 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Qiu Meili 裘美丽 (Shanghai, Rights Activist)
Lan Zhixue 兰志学 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Zhou Jinchang 周锦昌 (Zhejiang, Retiree)
Huang Yanming 黄燕明 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Liu Wei 刘 巍 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Yan Liehan 鄢烈汉 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Chen Defu 陈德富 (Guizhou, Democracy Activist)
Guo Yongxin 郭用新 (Hubei, Doctor)
Guo Yongfeng 郭永丰 (Guangdong, Founder of the Association of Chinese Citizens for Monitoring the Government [中国公民监政会])
Yuan Xinting 袁新亭 (Guangzhou [Guangdong], Editor)
Qi Huimin 戚惠民 (Zhejiang, Democracy Activist)
Li Yu 李 宇 (Sichuan, Journalist)
Xie Fulin 谢福林 (Hunan, Human Rights Defender)
Xu Guang 徐 光 (Zhejiang, Business Owner)
Ye Huo 野 火 (Guangdong, Freelance Writer)
Zou Wei 邹 巍 (Zhejiang, Rights Activist)
Xiao Libin 萧利彬 (Zhejiang, Engineer)
Gao Haibing 高海兵 (Zhejiang, Democracy Activist)
Tian Qizhuang 田奇庄 (Hebei, Writer)
Deng Taiqing 邓太清 (Shanxi, Democracy Activist)
Pei Hongxin 裴鸿信 (Hebei, Teacher)
Xu Min 徐 民 (Jilin, Legal Professional)
Li Xige李喜阁 (Henan, Rights Activist)
Wang Debang 王德邦 (Beijing, Writer)
Feng Qiusheng 冯秋盛 (Guangdong, Peasant)
Hou Wenbao 侯文豹 (Anhui, Rights Activist)
Tang Jitian 唐吉田 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Liu Rongchao 刘荣超 (Anhui, Peasant)
Li Tianxiang 李天翔 (Henan, Worker)
Cui Yuzhen 崔玉振 (Hebei, Lawyer)
Xu Maolian 许茂连 (Anhui, Peasant)
Zhai Linhua 翟林华 (Anhui, Teacher)
Tao Xiaoxia 陶晓霞 (Anhui, Peasant)
Zhang Wang 张 望 (Fujian, Worker)
Huang Dachuan 黄大川 (Liaoning, Office Worker)
Chen Xiaoyuan 陈啸原 (Hainan, Office Worker)
Zhang Jiankang 张鉴康 (Shaanxi, Legal Professional)
Zhang Xingshui 张星水 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Ma Gangquan 马纲权 (Beijing, Lawyer)
Wang Jinxiang 王金祥 (Hubei, Rights Activist)
Wang Jiaying 王家英 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Yan Laiyun 鄢来云 (Hubei, Business Owner)
Li Xiaoming 李小明 (Hubei, Rights Activist)
Xiao Shuixiang 肖水祥 (Hubei, Rights Activist)
Yan Yuxiang 鄢裕祥 (Hubei, Rights Activist)
Liu Yi 刘 毅 (Beijing, Artist)
Zhang Zhengxiang 张正祥 (Yunnan, Environmental Activist)